Бактериальные заболевания – лимитирующий фактор развития аквакультуры осетровых рыб

  • A. K. Bissenbaev Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, г. Алматы, Казахстан
  • S. S. Bakiyev Казахский национальный университет имени аль-Фараби, г. Алматы, Казахстан

Аннотация

В соответствии с концепцией по переходу Казахстана к «Зеленой экономике», основной задачей в области развития рыбного хозяйства является сохранение биологического разнообразия водоемов, где особое внимание уделяется сохранению осетровых видов рыб. В этой связи создаются условия для развития товарного рыбоводства, что снизит промысловую нагрузку на естественные водоемы. В рамках Госпрограммы развития АПК прогнозируется рост объемов аквакультуры с 1,6 тысяч тонн в 2017 году до 5 тысяч тонн к 2021 году (https://strategy2050.kz/ru/news/51441/). Таким образом, значение аквакультуры увеличивается. Однако, высокая плотность отдельных видов на фермах может приводит к резкому увеличению численности патогенных микроорганизмов и массовой смертности рыб, поэтому являются наиболее экономически значимым препятствием для развития аквакультуры. Для снижения потерь при воспроизводстве водных объектов практически повсеместно проводятся профилактические или лечебные мероприятия с использованием антибиотиков, которые добавляют чаще всего в корм. При этом в пищевом сырье и продукции из объектов аквакультуры отмечается остаточное содержание антибиотиков, применяемых в терапии и профилактике бактериальных инфекций, что приводит к поступлению в организм потребителя и окружающую среду различных антибиотиков, используемых в разных странах при товарном выращивании объектов.  Таким образом, эти антибиотики, оказавшиеся в организме человека, а также в окружающей среде стимулируют появление бактерий с множественной лекарственной устойчивостью. Эндолизины представляют собой потенциальную замену антибиотикам почти без побочных эффектов. Эндолизины не влияют на представителей нормальной микрофлоры организма. Кроме этого, очень важным аспектом является невозможность развития к ним резистентности.
Таким образом, эндолизины обладают огромным потенциалом в борьбе с различными возбудителями, являясь отличной альтернативой антибиотикам.
 
Ключевые слова: аквакультура, бактериальные заболевания, антибиотики, бактериофаг, эндолизин.

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Опубликована
2020-04-20
Как цитировать
BISSENBAEV, A. K.; BAKIYEV, S. S.. Бактериальные заболевания – лимитирующий фактор развития аквакультуры осетровых рыб. Experimental Biology, [S.l.], v. 82, n. 1, p. 4-21, apr. 2020. ISSN 2617-7498. Доступно на: <https://bb.kaznu.kz/index.php/biology/article/view/1446>. Дата доступа: 31 may 2020

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